What is an Cervical Cancer?
Cervical cancer is a cancer that occurs in the cells in the cervix. The cervix is the lowest part of the uterus (womb). Fetus grow in the body/upper part of the uterus. The cervix connects the body to the vagina (birthing canal). There are two parts to the cervix, the endocervix and the exocervix. The two main cells on the cervix are the squamous cells (on the exocervix) and tglandualr cells (on the endocervix). Most cancers begin in the transformation zone which is between the endocervix and the exocervix. Before these cells become cancerous they are pre-cancerous and can be detected by the Pap test and they can be treated.
What are the Risk Factors for Cervical Cancer?
These risk factors increase your chance of getting cervical cancer, however, many women with these risks do not develop cervical cancer
Human papilloma virus infection
A diet low in fruits and vegetables
Long term use of oral contraceptives
Intrauterine device use
Having multiple full-term pregnancies
Being younger than 17 at your first full-term pregnancy
Diethylstilbestrol (hormonal drug)
Having a family history of cervical cancer
How can Cervical Cancer be Prevented?
The first way to prevent against cervical cancer is to treat pre-cancerous cells that are detected by taking annual Pap tests. The Pap test is a procedure that takes cells from the cervix and test them for pre-cancerous and HPV cells under a microscope. Other ways to prevent against cervical cancer is to avoid exposure to HPV, get the HPV vaccine, and avoid smoking.
What is the Treatment for Cervical Cancer?
Each provider may have different suggestions about a treatment plan. Trust your provider who knows you and your care to know the best plan for you but never hesitate for a second opinion.
Cervical cancer cannot be treated until the stage of cancer is determined. The stage is determined by the size, depth of invasion, and how far it has spread. The most common treatments are surgery (early stages), radiation therapy (early stages), and chemotherapy (later stages).
Most importantly ask questions and understand the risk and side effects of each treatment before making your decision.
**It is best to see your primary care physician and OB/Gyn regularly in order to prevent cervical cancer Please call 773-702-0660 to make an appointment at Friend Family Health Center.**
What is a Thyroid Gland?
The thyroid gland is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of your neck just below your Adam’s apple. Your thyroid gland helps control the function of your body’s metabolism as well as function of many important organs, including your heart, brain, liver, kidneys, and skin.
Thyroid dysfunction occurs when the thyroid gland produces either too much thyroid hormone, which causes your body’s systems to speed up – this is called hyperthyroidism; or too little thyroid hormone, which causes your body’s systems to slow down – this is called hypothyroidism, both negatively affecting your overall well-being.
What is Thyroid Cancer?
Thyroid cancer usually appears as a painless lump in the lower front of the neck. In most cases, the lump affects only one side of the neck. There are four main types of thyroid cancer: papillary, follicular, medullary and anaplastic. The vast majority of cases are either papillary or follicular.
What are the Risk Factors/Symptoms of Thyroid Cancer?
Several known risk factors have been identified such as external radiation to the head or neck, genetic predisposition and gender (a lump in a man’s neck is more likely to be cancerous than one in a woman’s neck.)
Many patients with thyroid cancer have no symptoms whatsoever, and are found by chance to have a lump in the thyroid gland during a routine physical exam or an imaging study of the neck done for unrelated reasons such as a CT or MRI scan of the spine or chest. Other patients with thyroid cancer become aware of a gradually enlarging lump in the front portion of the neck which usually moves with swallowing. Occasionally, the lump may cause a feeling of pressure. Obviously, finding a lump in the neck should be brought to the attention of your physician, even in the absence of other symptoms.
10 Things about Thyroid Cancer/Disease you should know:
1. Up to 27 million Americans may be affected by thyroid disorders, although more than half remain undiagnosed.
2. Thyroid disorders are more common amongst women.
3. Thyroid disorders tend to run in the family.
4. Fatigue is a common complaint for under and over active thyroid conditions.
5. TSH testing is the most useful test for thyroid screening.
6. Regular checkups are the key to successfully managing a malfunctioning thyroid gland.
7. Changing brands and dosage that affect thyroid hormone levels should be followed by retesting.
8. Do not change your dose of thyroid medication without guidance from your physician.
9. Thyroid conditions in pregnancy warrant close attention.
10. Thyroid cancer is one of the fastest growing cancers in America and one of the most curable.
**It is best to see your primary care physician regularly in order to prevent against Thyroid Cancer. Please call 773-702-0660 to make an appointment at Friend Family Health Center.**
What is World AIDS Day?
World AIDS Day is a day to unit against the fight of HIV, support indivduals with a diagnosis of AIDS/HIVand a time to remember those who have passed. The first World AIDS day was held in 1988. There are 34 million people currently living with HIV in the world. Even though treatment for AIDS and HIV has come along way and there are laws to protect the people with this diseadee, Stigmas and discriminationstill exists against those with the disease.
What is the Difference between AIDS and HIV?
HIV means that you have the Human Immunodeficiency Virus in your body. You get
How is HIV transmitted?
HIV is transmitted through bodily fluids, such as vaginal fluids, semen, blood, rectal secretions, and breast milk. The most common way of transmission is through sex without a condom or sharing infected needles or syringes. HIV can also be transmitted through oral sex but the risk is lower than anal or vaginal sex. You cannot transmitt HIV through normal contact, kissing, or sharing a cup or plate.
What are the Symptoms of early HIV Infection?
Ten days after infection
Is there Treatments or Vaccines for HIV?
HIV treatment has become more effective in the past decade and helps HIV positive indiviudals life a normal and active life. . HIV treatment reduces the level of HIV in the body which can also reduce the chance of HIV being transmitted to others. Treatment also reduces the chance of an HIV positive woman to pass it on to her child.
There are no vaccines to prevent against HIV.
Where can I get tested?
You can make an appointment at Friend Family Health Center with your Primary Physican to get tested. You can be tested through blood or saliva. Depending on the type of test you have
**It is best to see your primary care physician regularly in order to prevent, get tested, and treat HIV! Please call 773-702-0660 to make an appointment at Friend Family Health Center.**
What is Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)?
SAD is a type of depression that occurs at the same time every year. For most people with SAD depression usually starts around the end of fall and into the winter. However, some people might experience SAD during spring and summer months.
What are the Symptoms of SAD?
For the fall/winter months symptoms may include:
- Loss of Energy
- Weight Gain
- Difficulty Concentrating
- Social Withdrawal
- Loss of Interest
- Change in Appetite
For the spring/summer months symptoms may include:
- Poor Appetite
- Trouble Sleeping
- Weight Loss
- Increased Sex Drive
What Causes SAD?
The specific causes of SAD are not known. Genetics, age, and your body’s chemical make up most likely play a role. More specifically your biological clock, serotonin levels, and melatonin levels most likely are responsible. Your biological clock may be affected due to the changes in time of sun set and sun rise which can lead to a feeling of depression. A drop in serotonin levels can be caused by a reduction in sun light which can lead to mood changes. Sleep patteners and mood swings may also be affected by a change in melatonin levels that can affects by the change of seasons.
What are the Risk Factors of SAD?
Risk factors include:
- Being Female
- Family History
- Having Clinical Depression or Bipolar Disorder
- Living Far from the Equator
How are you Diagnosed?
Your doctor can diagnose you with SAD depending on your response tou several detailed questions and a physical exam. These details questions would include questions about your changes in mood, thoughts and behavior; sleeping and eating habits; as well as questions about yourpersonal and professional relationships. Medical tests are not usually performed unless the doctor suspects that a certain condition is causing your depression.
What is the Treatment for SAD?
You andh your doctor should discuss the best treatment for you. Some treatments may include light therapy, medications, psychotherapy or a combination of them. There are also several lifestyle and home remedies you can do to help treat your SAD. Making your environment brighter or sunnier, exercising regularly and getting outside are just a fewexamples of changes a person can make. Supplements may also be included into your treatment, such as St John’s wart, SAMe, Melatonin, and Omega-3 fatty acids. Do not take these supplement without discussing them with your doctor first as they can cause complications if you have certain diseases.
**It is best to see your primary care physician regularly in order to prevent and treat seasonal affective disorder! Please call 773-702-0660 to make an appointment at Friend Family Health Center.**
Pancreatic Cancer Awareness Month
What is Pancreatic Cancer?
Pancreatic cancer is when malignant cells form in the pancreas. The pancreas is a 6 inch long gland that is located behind the stomach but in front of the spine. It produces digests enzymes that break down the food we consume and hormones that control blood sugar levels. The pancreas also helps the body store and use energy that we get from the food we consume. Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly types of cancer because it is usually diagnosed at a late stage. It is the fourth leading cause of death in America.
What are Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors?
- Increased age (over 60 years)
- African Americans
- Tobacco usage
- Fatty diet
- Pancreatic cysts
What are Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms?
There are usually no symptoms during the early stages of pancreatic cancer. Most of the symptoms are very common and could be caused by a number of other reasons. The most common symptoms are persistent abdominal pain, unexplained and significant weight loss, and an immense amount of upper back pain. Some other symptoms may include loss of appetite, change of bowel movements, pain while eating, or nausea and vomiting.
How is Pancreatic Cancer Diagnosed?
- Blood tests
- Biopsy for pancreatic cancer
- CT scan
- Ultrasound scan
- Endoscopic ultrasound
- Pulmonary function test
- MRI scan
- Exercise tolerance test
How is Pancreatic Cancer Treated?
Pancreatic cancer can be treated with one or a combination of treatments. These treatments include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, clinical trials, and pancreatic enzyme replacement treatment for symptom control. Work with your doctor to figure out what the best plan of action for treating your cancer.
**It is best to see your primary care physician regularly in order to diagnose and treat pancreatic cancer early! Please call 773-702-0660 to make an appointment at Friend Family Health Center.**
American Diabetes Month
What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a condition where your body cannot make enough insulin or cannot use it properly. It can lead to serious health conditions such as heart disease, kidney failure, blindness, and amputations. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in America. There are several types of Diabetes, such as, Prediabetes, Type 1, Type 2, and Gestational Diabetes. Prediabetes is when your blood glucose levels are high but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes is when the body cannot produce insulin and is usually diagnosed in children and teens. Type 2 diabetes is when your body does not use insulin properly. Gestational diabetes is when a pregnant women who did not have diabetes before pregancy now has high blood glucose levels.
What are Diabetes Symptoms?
Symptoms of diabetes include urinating frequently, feeling very hungry or thirsty, blurry vision, severe fatigue, weight loss, numbness or tingling in feel or hands, or cuts and bruises that are slow to mend.
How is Diabetes Diagnosed?
Diabetes can be diagnosed at your doctor’s office either by an A1C test, Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) test, or Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). An A1C test measures your blood glucose over the past 2-3 months. If your blood glucose is over 6.5% you have diabetes. FPG test checks your fasting (before food or fluid intake) blood glucose levels. You cannot eat or drink 8 hours before the test. If your blood glucose is greater than 200 mg/dl you have diabetes. OGTT checks your blood glucose 2 hours after you drink a special drink. If your blood glucose is greater than 200 mg/dl you have diabetes.
How is Diabetes Treated?
Type 2 Diabetes can be prevented making changes in your lifestyle. Changing your lifestyle means eating healthy, increasing physical activity, and maintaining a normal weight. Adults should get 30 minutes of moderate exercise 5 days a week. Even if you do not lose enough weight to be at your ideal weight, losing 15 pounds will help prevent against diabetes. If you would like to know if you are at risk for Type 2 Diabetes visit:
Diabetes can be treated several ways. Lifestyle changes, medication, blood glucose monitoring, and managing your ABCs (A1C, blood pressure, and cholesterol) are all ways to treat your diabetes. To know the best treatment plan for you visit your primary care physician.
**It is best to see your primary care physician regularly in order to prevent and treat your Diabetes! Please call 773-702-0660 to make an appointment at Friend Family Health Center.**
Liver Awareness Month
Why is my Liver Important?
The liver purifies blood and detoxifies infections, alcohol, metals, drugs, chemicals, and poisons from the blood. It digests fats, manufactures proteins and processes everything you take in.
If you do not work to keep your liver healthy you could develop:
- Liver failure
- Alcoholic liver disease
- Autoimmune Hepatitis
- Fatty Liver
- Gallbladder Disease
- Gilbert Syndrome
- Hepatitis A, B or C
- Liver Cancer
- Liver Fibrosis
- Metabolic Syndrome
- Wilsons Disease
How Can You Tell if Your Liver is not Working?
- Dark colored urine
- Severe itching
- Pale colored stools
- Memory problems
- Breast pain
- Spider shaped blood vessels on stomach
- Menstrual disturbances
- Nausea and vomiting
- Low appetite
- Tender or painful abdomen
How can you Prevent against Liver Disease?
Liver disease can be prevented by avoiding alcohol, stress, sugar, and fatty foods. Alcohol destroys healthy liver cells. Stress prevents the liver to work properly. When too much sugar is consumed, the liver starts to convert it to fat which increases the chance of fatty liver disease and prevents the liver from functioning normally. Fatty foods can slow down liver function, increase the risk of fatty liver disease and increase the risk of hypertension. You can also prevent liver disease by drinking more water, practicing relaxation techniques, and eating a healthy diet. Water helps the liver process waste and relaxation techniques will help relieve stress.
How do you Treat Liver Disease?
There are several types of liver treatments. The type of treatment you receive depends on your diagnosis. You and your doctor should discuss t what the best treatment plan will be for you.
** It is best to see you Primary Care Physician regularly in order to keep your liver healthy. Please call 773-702-0660 to make an appointment at Friend Family Health Center.**
What is Breast Cancer?
Breast cancer is a tumor in the breast that forms when cells grow and divide out control. The tumor usually grows slowly and may take years before it is discovered. However, there are some tumors that grow quickly and are extremely aggressive. Both men and women can devlope breast cancer. Women and men are treated the same way and have the same survival rate when in the identical stage of cancer. Men are usually diagnosed at a later stage because it takes them longer to report an abnormality.
What are the Symptoms?
Symptoms may include lumps or knots in the breast or armpit, swelling or redness on the breast, change in size, dimples in the skin, rashes or itchy skin, abnormal discharge, or constant soreness. It is best to see your primary care physician to know if these are signs of cancer. You should examine your breasts daily to know what is normal for you. When you notice something abnormal please contact your doctor.
What are the Risk Factors?
- Inherited Gene Mutations
- Family History of Breast Cancer
- Lack of Exercise
- Over Weight
- Hormone Therapy
- Bone density
- Previously Diagnosis of Cancer
How can you Prevent against Breast Cancer?
There are several ways you can prevent against breast cancer. One of the best ways to prevent against breast cancer is to get screened. If you are over 40 years old you should get a mammogram every year. It is also beneficial to perform a daily breast exam. Another prevention is to be physically active, maintaining a healthy weight, and eating healthy. Eating healthy includes avoiding fatting foods, limit red and processed meat, eating 2.5 cups of fruits and vegetables every day, reduce salt, and drink alcohol in moderation.
How do I know if I have Breast Cancer?
The best way to know if you have breast cancer is to get tested. These tests usually happen when you or your doctor finds a lump in your breast or if you have an abnormal mammogram. If cancer cannot be ruled out by a mammogram you will need a biopsy. A biopsy removes cells or tissue from the area and is studied under a microscope. If cancer is found early, it can frequently be treated successfully.
How do you Treat Breast Cancer?
There are several ways to treat breast cancer. Treatment is based on the size of the tumor, the tumor grade and type, the tumor characteristics, and the lymph node status. If diagnosed, you should discuss with your oncologist the best treatment for you. Some of the most common treatments are:
- Radiation therapy
- Hormone therapy
- Chemotherapy drugs
** Please call 773-702-0660 to make an appointment at Friend Family Health Center to know more about risks and prevention against breast cancer.**
National Cholesterol Education Month
What is Cholesterol?
Cholesterol is a fat-like substance that our bodies need. Too much cholesterol in our blood can cause a build up on artery walls. This build up may lead to heart disease or stroke. There are ‘good’ cholesterol (HDL) and ‘bad’ cholesterol (LDL). When people talk about high cholesterol levels they are referring to the LDL cholesterol. Two out of three adults have high cholesterol and most do not have it under control.
Why is it important to be Screened?
Screening is how an individual knows what their cholesterol numbers are. Many people do not know they have high cholesterol because there are no symptoms. This is why screening is so important. The screening process is simple and can be done by your primary care physician. Individuals 20 years and older should have their cholesterol checked at least every 5 years.
What do my Numbers mean?
Total Cholesterol Level
Less than 200 mg/dL
240 mg/dL and above
LDL Cholesterol Level
LDL Cholesterol Category
Less than 100 mg/dL
Near optimal/above optimal
190 mg/dL abd above
What are the Risk Factors of High Cholesterol?
Age (men 45 and up; women 55 and up)
High blood pressure
How do you Prevent High Cholesterol?
Making lifestyle changes can prevent against high cholesterol. Other changes may include eating a low-fat, low-salt, and high-fiber diet, being physically active, maintain a healthy weight, and avoiding tobacco.
How do you Treat High Cholesterol?
Two ways to treat high cholesterol drug treatment and lifestyle changes. Medications prescribed by your doctor can lower your cholesterol but should be used with lifestyle changes. Lifestyle changes include eating a healthy diet, regular physical activity, and avoiding tobacco use.
**It is best to see your primary care physician regularly in order to know your cholesterol numbers! Please call 773-702-0660 to make an appointment at Friend Family Health Center.**
National Sickle Cell Disease Awareness Month
What is Sickle Cell Disease?
Sickle Cell Disease is an inherited blood disorder. It affects red blood cells which carries Hemoglobin, which carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Sickle cells only live for 60 days whereas normal red blood cells live for 120. People with sickle cell disease cannot produce red blood cells as fast, so these individuals have fewer red blood cells and have anemia. This disease can be very painful.
Who does Sickle Cell Disease affect?
Sickle cell disease can affect many different races, but most people with this disease are African American. One out of every 500 African American is born with this disease.
How can You stay Health and reduce my Pain?
- Get regular check-ups
- Get support
- Put heat packs on the body parts that hurt
- Eat a healthy diet
- Drink 8-10 glasses of water a day
- Prevent infections by washing your hands and getting your vaccinations
- Get 7-8 hours of sleep
- Stay warm
- Take all prescribe medications by your doctor
- Take vitamins
- Avoid places with low oxygen (mountains)
How do You Treat Sickle Cell Disease?
Sickle cell disease cannot be cured. However, there are several medications and treatments that can reduce your symptoms. These medications and treatments are antibiotics, folic acid, hydroxyurea, pain management, intravenous fluids, and penicillin. Treatment of sickle cell disease aims to relieve pain, control complications, and prevent infections, organ damage, and stroke. Blood and bone marrow stem cell transplants may help some individuals with the disease but researchers continue to look for new treatments.
**It is best to see your primary care physician regularly in order to treat your sickle cell disease! Please call 773-702-0660 to make an appointment at Friend Family Health Center.**